anstehende ereignisse in matera

We knew every family.”, “My father has some very black memories of the Sassi,” Antonio added. He suddenly stopped next to a fractured staircase: “There used to be a well here, where I’d get the water as a little boy,” he said, visibly shaken. “Matera is a model for making use of the past without being overwhelmed by it,” says American-born novelist Elizabeth Jennings, who has lived here for 15 years. Signor Nicoletti would try to find his old home, accompanied by both his sons and two of his grandchildren. Date: Recensăminte sau birourile de statistică - grafică realizată de Wikipedia. Han er hovudstad i provinsen Matera i regionen Basilicata og har om lag 60 000 innbyggjarar. And with a little effort, it is still possible for travelers to slip back in time. She explained that she had leased it from the city a decade ago, and offered to let us visit. So the name might mean Madonna of defense. “Twenty years ago, we were the only ones who were interested in the Sassi,” says artist Mitarotonda. It has three large towers, while twelve were probably included in the original design. “Before the revival, people who grew up in the Sassi would pretend they came from somewhere else,” Nicoletti mused, as we strolled away. Cookie Policy However, the construction remained unfinished after his assassination in the popular riot of 29 December 1514. Some are complex cave networks with large underground chambers, thought to have been used for meditation by the rupestrian and cenobitic monks. A couple of days later, I got my answer. He said, ‘They died from hunger, malaria, I don’t want to remember.’”, In the late 1950s, as the Sassi’s last inhabitants were being evacuated from their houses, about two dozen Materan students, who had grown up in the more modern, affluent world of the Piano, decided to rebel against their city’s notoriety. Vote Now! Privacy Statement On my last day, I was strolling with Antonio Nicoletti when we met a group of old men in workers’ caps taking the air in the plaza. And the ancient rural culture is surprisingly resilient. Built in an Apulian Romanesque architectural style, the church has a 52 m tall bell tower, and next to the main gate is a statue of the Maria della Bruna, backed by those of Saints Peter and Paul. Matera's bread is a local bread made with durum wheat, dating to the Kingdom of Naples, and typically featuring three incisions, symbolizing the Holy Trinity. But why did the government focus on the failures of the last 100 years, and forget that the Sassi had thrived for the previous 9,000?” De Ruggieri asks. Matera’s real claim to fame, though, and the reason it’s a UNESCO World Heritage Site, is the extensive series of cave dwellings ("i sassi") southeast of town, first inhabited by Benedictine and Basilian monks. [4] Alternatively it has been suggested by architectural historian Anne Parmly Toxey that the area has been "occupied continuously for at least three millennia and occupied sporadically for 150–700 millennia prior to this".[5]. Some of these more recent facilities have the shape of houses submerged in the earth.[10]. You’ll see individual cells, chapels, and even some churches, many adorned with Byzantine decorations and frescoes. Matera is not very well suited for wheelchairs or anything of the sort. Despite Matera’s sudden upscale swing, the homespun eccentricity that marked the revival of the Sassi has persisted. Signor Nicoletti showed where he and his three sisters once slept on straw mattresses separated by curtains, and he found the spot in the kitchen where his mother had built a false wall to hide valuables from the Nazis, including his sisters’ linen dowries. It’s difficult to imagine that Matera’s ancient warren was known not too long ago as “the shame of Italy” for its dismal poverty. In the pot with the sheep meat there were other food like shelled and cut potatoes("U patèn sczzlèt i tagghièt"), cut or even whole onion ("La cjpaud"), tomatoes in pieces ("‘U pmmdaur"), celery ("L’occij") and salt ("‘U sèl"). In southern Italy, the past has often helped rescue the present. “But now the circle is wider. During some restoration work in the main square of the town, workers came across what were believed to be the main footings of another castle tower. Matera je talianske mesto v regióne Basilicata, hlavné mesto rovnomennej provincie. Even in the 19th century, few travelers ventured through its arid, desolate landscapes, which were known to be full of briganti, or brigands. Keep up-to-date on: © 2020 Smithsonian Magazine. The caves do not attract big hotel chains but enterprising individuals like the Pontes, who like to spend time with their guests in the old vicinato, chatting over an apertif. Some are simple caves with a single altar and maybe a fresco, often located on the opposite side of the ravine. There is an underground swimming pool, evoking an ancient Roman thermae, with lights creating hypnotic water patterns on the ceiling, and a contemporary art museum, MUSMA, with its own underground network, highlighting—what else?—sculpture. Known as la città sotterranea ("the underground city"), the Sassi and the park of the Rupestrian Churches were named a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1993. Until the late 1980s the Sassi was still considered an area of poverty, since its dwellings were, and in most cases still are, uninhabitable and dangerous. “This can’t just be a place where culture is consumed,” says De Ruggieri. Architectural historian Anne Parmly Toxey writes that "The date of Matera's founding is debated; however, the revered work of the city’s early chroniclers provides numerous, generally accepted accounts of Goth, Longobard, Byzantine, and Saracen sieges of the city beginning in the eighth century and accelerating through the ninth century AD. The most Matera families were found in the USA in 1920. Hidden behind iron grilles are rock-hewn churches, created by Byzantine monks, with splendidly frescoed interiors. “Now they’re celebrities.”. I asked if his father might now consider revisiting his ancestral residence. Matera’s obscurity ended in 1945, when the Italian artist and author Carlo Levi published his memoir Christ Stopped at Eboli, about his year of political exile in Basilicata under the Fascists. The Renaissance, the Enlightenment, the Industrial Revolution—they all passed Matera by. It is a common ritual grown into "Sassi di Matera" and celebrated on 1 August; it is still celebrated. In the 1950s, as part of a policy to clear the extreme poverty of the Sassi, the government of Italy used force to relocate most of the population of the Sassi to new public housing in the developing modern city. A third hypothesis says that the name comes from the colour of the Virgin's face. “Yesterday’s ricotta is tomorrow’s butter,” Piero said, as if it were an alchemist’s secret. “We had no idea these were here until we started,” he said, as we walked inside the now-immaculate cone-shaped spaces. Ponte, who grew up in the modern part of Matera, which sprawls along the Piano (the “flat”) above the ravine, was one of the first to take advantage of this ready-made real estate. “You can find older cities in Mesopotamia, but they have not been occupied in modern times. Give a Gift. “But when they moved, that community simply disintegrated.”, As we talked, a young woman peered at us through the small window of the cave house. So today, there is no knee-jerk resistance to new ideas.”. But Matera may be Europe’s most radical rags-to-riches story. (Being a troglodyte, as locals cheerfully refer to themselves—the word’s literal meaning is “cave dweller”—evidently doesn’t preclude being stylish.) : Che, Fidel and the Improbable Revolution that Changed World History, The Naked Olympics: The True Story of the Ancient Games, Napoleon's Privates: 2500 Years of History Unzipped, Medicinal Plant May Have Evolved Camouflage to Evade Humans, Melting Ice in Norway Reveals Ancient Arrows, The Ten Best STEM Toys to Give as Gifts in 2020. : Che, Fidel and the Improbable Revolution that Changed World History,The Naked Olympics: The True Story of the Ancient Games and Napoleon's Privates: 2500 Years of History Unzipped. In 1514, however, the population rebelled against the oppression and killed Count Giovanni Carlo Tramontano. Matera (Italian pronunciation: [maˈtɛːra], locally [maˈteːra] (listen); Materano: Matàrë [maˈtæːrə]) is a city in the region of Basilicata, in Southern Italy. In 1927 it became capital of the new province of Matera. The rough walls were now whitewashed with lime to seal the rock, but the layout was unchanged. Though scholars continue to debate the date the dwellings were first occupied in Matera, and the continuity of their subsequent occupation, the area of what is now Matera is believed to have been settled since the Palaeolithic (10th millennium BC). Piero was boiling ricotta in a vat and stirring it with a cudgel the length of a gondola’s pole. Today, these underground residences are being reinhabited by Italians, and staying in one of the Sassi’s cave hotels has become one of Europe’s most exotic new experiences. They deferred politely to the patriarch, Domenico, now 78, a tiny, subdued man in an immaculate three-piece gray suit and brush of silver hair. There were also a large number of little superficial canals (rasole[what language is this?]) Levi’s book caused an uproar in postwar Italy, and the Sassi became notorious as la vergogna nazionale, the disgrace of the nation. 17th Annual Photo Contest Finalists Announced. Because of the ancient primeval-looking scenery in and around the Sassi, it has been used by filmmakers as the setting for ancient Jerusalem. One cave complex is occupied by a computer software company with nearly 50 employees. Ever since the excavation of Pompeii brought grand tours to Naples in the 18th century, historical sites have lured foreign travelers to impoverished outposts. The owner of the sheep, already dead, put it on a table and took away its coat. In the southern Italian town of Matera, I followed a sinuous laneway down into a haunting district known as the Sassi (Italian for the “stones”), where some 1,500 cave dwellings honeycomb the flanks of a steep ravine. “We asked ourselves a simple question: Who are we?” recalls one of the leaders, Raffaello De Ruggieri, today. The town of Matera was founded by the Roman Lucius Caecilius Metellus in 251 BC who called it Matheola. Touted as the thing you absolutely must do before visiting the Sassi of Matera (literally meaning stone, but best translated as 'districts'), distracted by a beautiful hot day and an ice-cold beer in Piazzetta Giovanni Pascoli, we somehow managed to miss this - having read more since, it's the one thing we regret from our brief time in Matera. The profane insertions such as the navalis wagon and its violent destruction, along with the intimacy and the religious solemnity, suggest this festival shares roots with ancient traditions of other Mediterranean countries. Near a summit of stone crowned by an iron crucifix is a cave complex called Corte San Pietro, where the owner, Fernando Ponte, greeted me in a fine silk suit and cravat. Much of the unique architecture, the group discovered, could easily be saved. Mangia!” he insisted. Matera's inhabitants, as the tradition says, during the Carnival were used to eat the meat of the sheep that could not longer be used to produce milk or wool. Where else can you now sleep in a room that was first occupied 9,000 years ago?” Estimates of the earliest occupation of the site vary, but archaeologists have found artifacts in local caves dating to the Neolithic period and even earlier. The planner Antonio Nicoletti was puzzled that his own father, Domenico, had never visited the Sassi since his family was moved in 1956, when Domenico was 20—even though his new home was less than half a mile away. Learn how and when to remove this template message, List of twin towns and sister cities in Italy, "Superficie di Comuni Province e Regioni italiane al 9 ottobre 2011", "Popolazione Residente al 1° Gennaio 2018", "Total Resident Population on 1st January 2018 by sex and marital status. “But he also has a nostalgia for its social life. Bus connection to Italy's main cities is provided by private firms. Byen ligg på tvers av ein liten, trong dal, som har vorte erodert av elva Gravina, som renn gjennom byen. Balls of his prized caciocavallo podolico hung from the rafters, and a small dog darted about the disordered room yapping at our ankles. The Matera family name was found in the USA, Canada, and Scotland between 1861 and 1920. The Sassi are habitations dug into the calcareous rock itself, which is characteristic of Basilicata and Apulia. It was delicate, closer to cream than cheese. The cooking lasted about 3–4 hours and then the meat could be eaten with cheese. “Back then, the Sassi had been abandoned, virtually given over to wolves.”. The first government archaeologists arrived in the early 1980s. In the 1950s, the entire population of roughly 16,000 people, mostly peasants and farmers, were relocated from the Sassi to new housing projects in an ill-conceived government program, leaving it an empty shell. |, (Inside one of Matera’s rupestrian churches, frescoes from the ninth century A.D. on the walls of the Crypt of Original Sin depict scenes from the Old and New Testaments. California Do Not Sell My Info This area, the Sassi di Matera, is a complex of cave dwellings carved into the ancient river canyon. A few years later, an Italian law La Scaletta lobbied for passed, providing protection and funding. People lived outside in their vicinato, or courtyard, which was like a tiny piazza. Instead, the ancient laneways became overgrown and decrepit, and the Sassi soon gained a reputation for crime, attracting drug dealers, thieves and smugglers. A leather-skinned shepherd wielding a wooden crook was driving podolico cattle to pasture with a phalanx of dogs. The meal was called pignata (in dialect:"La pignèt") after its terracotta pot shaped like an amphora. At the same time, adventurous local artists began to drift into abandoned buildings. Matera's inhabitants, as the tradition says, during the Carnival were used to eat the meat of the sheep that could not longer be used to produce milk or wool. Naturally, my cave was Wi-Fi enabled. He moved nearby with his wife around 1990, and has been renovating the compact complex, with five cave-rooms and a dining hall around a courtyard, ever since, installing plumbing, electricity, heating and ventilation systems to counter the subterranean humidity. It was a Sunday, and the extended family was fresh from church service, crisply dressed and chatting excitedly over potent espressos. La Scaletta published its own book on the cave churches in 1966, and began lobbying for conservation funds, supported by the writer Carlo Levi, now a senator, who declared the Sassi to be an architectural treasure “on a par with the Grand Canal of Venice.” In the late 1970s, De Ruggieri purchased a ruined mansion on the fringe of the Sassi—“for the price of a cappuccino!” he jokes—and began restoring it, despite fears that it was dangerous. [13], Different hypotheses are attributed to the name of Madonna della Bruna : the first says that the noun derives from the Lombard high-medieval term brùnja (armor/protection of knights). Matera er ein by sør i Italia. "[7] In the 7th and 8th centuries the nearby grottos were colonised by both Benedictine and Basilian monastic institutions. It’s easy to see why Matera has been chosen to double for ancient Jerusalem in films, including Pier Paolo Pasolini’s The Gospel According to St. Matthew and Mel Gibson’s The Passion of the Christ. “In other Italian cities like Florence, history is a black hole that sucks everything into it, and makes any innovation difficult. In 1993, Unesco listed the Sassi as a World Heritage site, calling it “the most outstanding, intact example of a troglodyte settlement in the Mediterranean region, perfectly adapted to its terrain and ecosystem.”.

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